PD200 – 60 Watt Voltage Amplifier

The PD200 is a high bandwidth, low-noise linear amplifier for driving piezoelectric actuators. The output voltage range can be switched between bipolar or unipolar modes with a range of 200V, -50V to +150V, or +/-100V. Up to +/-200V can be achieved in the bridged configuration.

The PD200 can drive unlimited capacitive loads such as stack actuators; standard piezoelectric actuators; two wire benders; and three-wire piezoelectric benders requiring a 200V bias voltage. The PD200 is highly user configurable with jumpers for options such as the voltage range, polarity, and gain control. Two potentiometers are also provided to limit the positive and negative voltages to any arbitrary value between zero and full range. Due to the extensive configuration options, the PD200 is suited to a wide range of applications including electro-optics, ultrasound, vibration control, nanopositioning systems, and piezoelectric motors.

There are four output connectors including Lemo 00, Lemo 0B, BNC, and screw terminals that allow the direct connection to almost any commercially available piezoelectric actuator, including those from PI, Piezomechanic, PiezoSystems, etc.

PD200 - 60W Voltage Amplifier

Compatible Actuators

Compatible Actuators
Stack Actuators 100V, 120V, 150V, 200V
Plates and Tubes up to +/-100V
Two Wire Benders up to +/-100V
Three Wire Benders 0 to 200V with 200V bias
Three Wire Benders +/-100V with +/-100V bias


Electrical Specifications
Output Voltage Ranges +200V, +150V, -50V to 150V, +/-100V
RMS Current 0.57 Amps
Peak Current 2 or 10 Amps
Gain 20 V/V
Slew Rate 150 V/us
Signal Bandwidth 680 kHz
Power Bandwidth 230 kHz (200 Vp-p sine-wave)
Max Power 60 W Dissipation
Offset 0V to Full Range with front panel adjustment
Load Stable with any load
Noise 665 uV RMS (10 uF Load, 0.03 Hz to 1 MHz)
Overload Over-current protection
Voltage Monitor 1/20 V/V (BNC)
Voltage Display 4 digits, DC Voltage
Current Monitor 1 V/A (BNC)
Analog Input Signal input (BNC, Zin = 27k)
Output Connectors LEMO 00, LEMO 0B, 4mm Banana
Power Supply 90 Vac to 250 Vac
Mechanical Specifications
Environment 0 – 40 C (32-104 F), Non-condensing humidity
Dimensions 275 x 141 x 64 mm (10.8 x 5.5 x 2.5 in)
Weight 1 kg (2.2 lb)

Output Voltage Range

The desired voltage range should be identified when ordering. The following voltage ranges can be obtained with the correct combination of installed jumpers. Note that incorrect jumper settings may destroy the amplifier.

The standard output voltage range is 0V to 200V. However, the amplifier can be supplied with any voltage range by appending the order code with the voltage range code, for example, the standard configuration is PD200-V200. The voltage range jumper locations are labelled with the LP, LG, and LN prefixes on the PCB.

Voltage Range Code LP LG LN LK10 and LK12
0V to +200 -V200 LP1 LG3 Position A
0V to +150 -V150 LP2 LG3 Position A
0V to +100 -V100 LP2 LG2 Position A
0V to +50 -V50 LP2 LG1 Position A
-50 to +50 -V50,50 LP2 LG1 LN1 Position B
-50 to +100 -V50,100 LP2 LG2 LN2 Position B
-50 to +150 -V50,150 LP1 LG2 LN2 Position B
-100 to +100 -V100,100 LP1 LG1 LN2 Position B

Voltage Range Configuration

The jumper settings can be modified by disconnecting the amplifier from mains power then removing the top panel to access the PCB board. Either the front or back panel can be removed by unscrewing the retaining screws then gently lifting the panel free. By placing the panel slightly below the level of the enclosure, the top panel can be slid free to expose the PCB. This procedure is reversed to reassemble the amplifier.

Voltage Limits

The output voltage range can be restricted to an arbitrary positive and negative value. There are two potentiometers that can be accessed from a pair of holes on the bottom panel. By gently turning the potentiometers fully clockwise with a 2-mm flat-head screwdriver, the full voltage range becomes available. The voltage range is reduced by turning the potentiometers anti-clockwise. The hole closest to the front panel controls the negative voltage range while the rear hole controls the positive range.

Output Current Range

The standard peak output current is +/-2 Amps; however, for applications that require very fast step changes in voltage, the amplifier can be configured in pulse mode with a 10 Amp current limit. The maximum pulse time for each mode is plotted below.

The output current range can be configured by disconnecting the amplifier from mains power then removing the front and top panel. The amplifier can be supplied preconfigured to any current range by appending the order code with the current range code, for example, the standard configuration is PD200-C2.

Peak Current Code Peak Limit Overload Timer Max Pulse Time
2 A -C2 LK16 LK19 and LK20 Out 1 ms
10 A -C10 LK18 LK19 and LK20 In 100 us

Current Range Configuration

PD200 Maximum pulse time versus current

Maximum pulse time versus current

Power Bandwidth

Power Bandwidth Calculator

With a capacitive load, the peak load current for a sine-wave is

$$ I_{pk}=\pm V_{pp} \pi C f ,$$

where \(V_{pp}\) is the peak-to-peak output voltage, \(C\) is the load capacitance and \(f\) is the frequency. Given a peak current limit \(I_{pk}\), the maximum frequency is therefore \(f=I_{pk}/V_{pp} \pi C\). However, the PD200 is protected by both peak and average current limits. The average current \(I_{av+}\) is defined as the average positive or negative current. For example, for a sine-wave

$$I_{av+} = \frac{1}{2\pi} \int_{0}^{\pi} I_{pk} \sin(\theta) d\theta = \frac{I_{pk}}{2\pi} \left[-\cos\right]_0^\pi = \frac{I_{pk}}{\pi} .$$

Therefore, for a sine-wave \(I_{av+}=I_{pk}/\pi\). Since the average current limit of the PD200 is fixed at \(I_{av+}=0.26\), the maximum frequency sine-wave, or power bandwidth of the PD200, is equal to

$$ f = \frac{0.26}{V_{pp} C}.$$

The above result is true for any periodic waveform such as triangular signals. The RMS current for a sine-wave can also be related to the average current,

$$ I_{av+} = \frac{\sqrt{2}}{\pi} I_{rms} .$$

The power bandwidths for a range of load capacitance values are listed below.

Load Peak to Peak Voltage
Cap 200V 150V 100V 50V
No Load 230 kHz 310 kHz 470 kHz 520 kHz
10 nF 130 kHz 173 kHz 260 kHz 520 kHz
30 nF 43 kHz 58 kHz 87 kHz 173 kHz
100 nF 13 kHz 17 kHz 26 kHz 52 kHz
300 nF 4.3 kHz 5.8 kHz 8.7 kHz 17 kHz
1 uF 1.3 kHz 1.7 kHz 2.6 kHz 5.2 kHz
3 uF 430 Hz 570 Hz 870 Hz 1.7 kHz
10 uF 130 Hz 170 Hz 260 Hz 520 Hz
30 uF 43 Hz 57 Hz 87 Hz 170 Hz

Power Bandwidth versus Load Capacitance

In the following figure, the maximum frequency periodic signal is plotted against the peak-to-peak voltage.

Power bandwidth versus voltage and load capacitance

Power bandwidth versus voltage and load capacitance

Small Signal Bandwidth

pd200 Small signal frequency response

Small signal frequency response

Load Cap. Bandwidth
No Load 684 kHz
10 nF 759 kHz
30 nF 720 kHz
100 nF 388 kHz
300 nF 172 kHz
1 uF 60 kHz
3 uF 21 kHz
10 uF 6.4 kHz
30 uF 2.4 kHz
110 uF 940 Hz

Small signal bandwidth versus
load capacitance (-3dB)


The output noise contains a low frequency component (0.03 Hz to 20 Hz) that is independent of the load capacitance; and a high frequency component (20 Hz to 1 MHz) that is inversely related to the load capacitance. Many manufacturers quote only the AC noise measured by a multimeter (20 Hz to 100 kHz) which is usually a gross underestimate.

The noise is measured with an SR560 low-noise amplifier (Gain = 1000), oscilloscope, and Agilent 34461A Voltmeter. The low-frequency noise is plotted in Figure 5. The RMS value is 650 uV with a peak-to-peak voltage of 4.3 mV. The noise level is approximately equal to the least significant bit of a 16-bit digital-to-analog converter.

Low frequency noise from 0.03 Hz to 20 Hz

Low frequency noise from 0.03 Hz to 20 Hz. The RMS value is 650 uV, or 4.3 mVp-p

The high frequency noise (20 Hz to 1 MHz) is listed in the table below versus load capacitance. The total noise from 0.03 Hz to 1 MHz can be found by square summing the RMS values, that is
$$ \sigma = \sqrt{ \sigma_{LF}^2 + \sigma_{HF}^2 } .$$

Load Cap. Bandwidth HF Noise RMS Total Noise RMS
No Load 684 kHz 240 uV 698 uV
10 nF 759 kHz 241 uV 698 uV
30 nF 720 kHz 243 uV 699 uV
100 nF 388 kHz 234 uV 696 uV
300 nF 172 kHz 171 uV 677 uV
1 uF 60 kHz 133 uV 668 uV
3 uF 21 kHz 115 uV 665 uV
10 uF 6.4 kHz 112 uV 665 uV
30 uF 2.4 kHz 98 uV 662 uV
110 uF 940 Hz 85 uV 660 uV

RMS noise versus load capacitance
(0.03 Hz to 1 MHz)

Input and Offset Configuration

The input stage is normally non-inverting; however, it can be configured as inverting by changing LK14 and LK15 to their “B” position. The default jumper position is “A” which is marked with a white bar on PCB overlay. The amplifier can be supplied with an inverting input by appending the order code with -INV.

Input Coniguration Code Link Positions
Non-inverting (default) LK14 and LK15 both “A”
Inverting -INV LK14 and LK15 both “B”

Input polarity configuration

The input offset source is also configurable. When LK21 is in the “B” position, the offset is derived from the on-board trim-pot R12, which is adjustable from zero to full-scale. The default configuration for LK21 is in the “A” position where the offset voltage is derived from the front-panel potentiometer.

The standard offset voltage range is from zero volts to full-scale; however, for applications that require negative offset voltages, LK13 can be moved from the “A” to “B” position. In the “B” position, the offset range is from -100V to full-scale.

Offset Configuration Code Link Positions
0V to +200V Range (default) LK13 “A” Position
-100V to +200V Range -OR2 LK13 “B” Position
Front panel source (default) LK21 “A” Position
PCB trim-pot source -OS2 LK21 “B” Position

Offset voltage source configuration

Bridged Mode

In bridged mode, two amplifiers are connected in series to double the output voltage range and power. To obtain +/-200V at the load, the amplifiers are configured as illustrated below. Both amplifiers are configured in the +/-100V range and the lower amplifier is also inverting. A +/-5V signal applied to both inputs will develop +/-200V at the output.

pd200 Bridged configuration for obtaining +/-200V

Bridged configuration for obtaining +/-200V

Overload Protection

The Shutdown indicator will illuminate during a shutdown caused by an average current overload. During shutdown, the amplifier output current is limited to a few mA and may float to the high or low voltage rail if the load impedance is high or capacitive.

When the amplifier is turned on, the overload protection circuit is engaged by default and will take approximately three seconds to reset.

Output Connections

An actuator can be connected to the amplifier by either screw terminals or the LEMO 00, LEMO 0B, or BNC connectors. The recommended connectors are listed below. The full connector part number will depend on the diameter of the cable and desired strain relief.

Output Connector Manufacturer PCB Connector
BNC Any BNC Connector TE 1-1634613-0
Terminals 20020004-D041B01LF FCI 20020110-D041A01LF
LEMO 00 FFA.00.250 LEMO EPL.00.250
LEMO 0B FGG.0B.302 LEMO EPG.0B.302

Output connectors

The LEMO 0B connector is recommended in high power applications. Preassembled LEMO cable assemblies are available from here.

The plug-in screw terminal has contacts for the output voltage, ground, and the positive and negative high-voltage supply rails, which are useful when driving piezoelectric bender actuators.

PD200 Screw terminal connections

PD200 Screw terminal connections

Bender actuators can be driven with a single bias voltage, for example 200 V, or bipolar bias voltages, for example +/-100 V. The 200 V unipolar configuration is illustrated below.

Piezoelectric bender actuator connection to the PD200

Piezoelectric bender actuator connection to the PD200


The PD200 enclosure has a side air intake and rear exhaust. These vents should not be obstructed.

The PD200 amplifiers can be rack-mounted in a three channel arrangement as shown below. The rack panel (19-inch X 2U) is supplied separately and requires some user assembly to mount between one and three channels. The rack order code is PD200-RackPanel.

pd200 enclosure


PiezoDrive amplifiers are guaranteed for a period of 3 months. The warranty does not cover damage due to misuse or incorrect user configuration of the amplifier.