# PD32 – 32 Channel Piezo Driver

The PD32 is a high-bandwidth, low-noise amplifier for driving up to 32 piezoelectric actuators. The voltage range is configurable from +50V to +/-140V and includes asymmetric voltage ranges such as -20V to +120V. The PD32 works seamlessly with common multi-channel DAC cards and provides exceptional ease of use and compatibility with programming tools such as LabView and Simulink. The compact size and 19-inch rack compatibility provides a comprehensive off-the-shelf solution for driving tens, hundreds, or thousands of piezoelectric actuators.

The PD32 is designed for demanding applications such as Adaptive Optics, Acoustic Beam Forming, Materials Testing, Astronomy, Ultrasonics, and Vibration Control. With an output current of 150mA per channel, a large array of piezoelectric actuators can be driven simultaneously at high frequencies. Positive and negative high-voltage bias outputs are also included for compatibility with piezoelectric bender actuators.

Each channel is individually protected against short circuit and thermal overload. Status indicators on the front panel provide individual monitoring of all channels. A digital status signal and external shutdown command is also accessible from the input connector to allow remote monitoring and control. The input and output connectors are industry standard 37 Pin D-Sub connectors which are straight-forward to assemble. Adaptors are available for industry standard 32 Channel DAC cards.

• Power Bandwidth Calculator (Grounded Load)
• Power Bandwidth Calculator (Floating Load)
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### Compatible Actuators

 Compatible Actuators Stack Actuators 60V, 100V, 120V, 150V Plates and Tubes up to +/-140V Two Wire Benders up to +/-140V Three Wire Benders up to 140V, or +/-75V

### Specifications

 Unipolar Output Bipolar Output Output Voltage +50 V to +140 V +/-50 V to +/-140 V Peak Current 150 mA per channel 75 mA per channel RMS Current 106 mA per channel 53 mA per channel Power Bandwidth 50 kHz (120 Vp-p) 50 kHz (240 Vp-p) Signal Bandwidth 120 kHz 120 kHz Slew Rate 19 V/us 38 V/us Gain 15 V/V 20 V/V Input Impedance 53 kOhm 6.25 kOhm Input Offset +/- 5 mV +/- 5 mV Load Unlimited Unlimited Output Noise 200 uV RMS (1uF) 300 uV RMS (1uF) Protection Short circuit and thermal Inputs 32 Analog inputs, shutdown command Outputs 32 HV Analog outputs, overload monitor Connectors Industry standard DB-37 (input) and DD-78 (output)
 Mechanical Specifications Environment 0 – 40 C (32-104 F), Non-condensing humidity Dimensions 212 x 304.8 x 88 mm (8.35 x 12 x 3.46 in) Weight 2 kg (4.4 lb)

### Output Voltage Range

The output voltage range is configurable between +50V and +/-140V and the load can be either grounded or floating. For peak-to-peak voltages less than 140V, the grounded load configuration is recommended since this provides greater current. The floating load configuration is required for the +/-100V and +/-140V ranges. The desired configuration should be specified at the time of ordering.

In the grounded load configurations, the actuator connections are illustrated below. The negative output is internally grounded.

The desired output voltage range can be selected from the following table.

 Min Voltage Max Voltage Order Code 0 +140 PD32-0/140 0 +120 PD32-0/120 0 +100 PD32-0/100 0 +70 PD32-0/70 0 +50 PD32-0/50 -20 +120 PD32-20/120 -20 +100 PD32-20/100 -72 +72 PD32-72/72 -48 +48 PD32-48/48

Grounded Load Voltage Ranges

Three wire bender actuators can be driven using the following connection diagram. The HV+ and HV- bias voltages are the minimum and maximum voltages listed in the table above and are accessible on the output connector.

The floating load configuration is useful for achieving higher peak-to-peak voltage swings. The connection diagram is illustrated below. Do not connect either of these signals to ground, for example, to the ground terminal of an oscilloscope probe.

The desired output voltage range can be selected from the following table.

 Min Voltage Max Voltage Order Code -140 +140 PD32-140/140 -100 +100 PD32-100/100

Floating Load Voltage Ranges

### Input Connection Diagram

The front panel input connector is an industry standard DB37 Female Connector (TE 1658612-1). Any Male DB-37 cable plug is compatible. The connection diagram is illustrated below.

 Signals Connector Pin Notes Analog Inputs 1 to 32 1 – 32 +/-10V max Ground 33, 34 Not Connected 35 Digital disable command 36 3.3V or 5V logic Overload indicator 37 5V logic

Input Connector Signals

Input Connector Pinout

### Output Connection Diagram

The front panel output connector is an industry standard DD78 Female Connector (TE 5748483-5). Any Male DD-78 cable plug is compatible. The connection diagram is illustrated below.

 Signals Connector Pin Notes Outputs 1 to 16 (positive) 1 – 16 Ground 17, 20 HV+ 18, 19 For driving benders Outputs 1 to 16 (negative) 21 – 36 Ground 37 HV- 38, 39 For driving benders Outputs 17 to 32 (positive) 40 – 55 Ground 56, 59 HV+ 57, 58 For driving benders Outputs 17 to 32 (negative) 60 – 75 Ground 76 HV- 77, 78 For driving benders

Output Connector Pinout

### Output Current

The peak output current is 150 mA per channel in the grounded load configuration or 75 mA per channel in the floating load configuration. The maximum RMS current is 106 mA in the grounded configuration and 53 mA in the floating load configuration.

The maximum output current from all channels is 3 Amps RMS.

### Power Bandwidth

Power Bandwidth Calculator (Grounded Load)

Power Bandwidth Calculator (Floating Load)

The nominal slew-rate of the PD32 is 19 V/us. Therefore, the maximum frequency sine-wave is

$$f_{max}= \frac{19 \times 10^6}{\pi~V_{L(p-p)}}$$ That is, the power bandwidth for a 120 Vp-p sine-wave is 50 kHz. In the floating load configuration, the slew-rate is doubled to 38 V/us, therefore, the power bandwidth for a 240 Vp-p sine-wave is 50 kHz.

With a capacitive load, the power bandwidth is limited by the output current. The maximum frequency sine wave is

$$f_{pwr} = \frac{I_{pk}}{\pi V_{L(p-p)}~C_L}$$ where $I_{pk}$ is the peak current limit, $V_{L(p-p)}$ is the peak-to-peak output voltage, and $C_L$ is the effective load capacitance. The power bandwidth versus load capacitance is listed below.

 Load Peak to Peak Voltage (Grounded) Cap 50 100V 140V 10 nF 95 kHz 47 kHz 34 kHz 30 nF 31 kHz 15 kHz 11 kHz 100 nF 9.5 kHz 4.7 kHz 3.4 kHz 300 nF 3.1 kHz 1.5 kHz 1.1 kHz 1 uF 950 Hz 470 Hz 340 Hz 3 uF 310 Hz 150 Hz 114 Hz 10 uF 96 Hz 48 Hz 34 Hz 30 uF 32 Hz 16 Hz 11 Hz

Power Bandwidth versus

 Load Peak to Peak Voltage (Floating) Cap 100 200V 280V 10 nF 23 kHz 11 kHz 8.5 kHz 30 nF 7.9 kHz 3.9 kHz 2.8 kHz 100 nF 2.3 kHz 1.1 kHz 850 Hz 300 nF 790 Hz 390 Hz 284 Hz 1 uF 230 Hz 119 Hz 85 Hz 3 uF 80 Hz 40 Hz 28 Hz 10 uF 24 Hz 12 Hz 9 Hz 30 uF 8 Hz 4 Hz 3 Hz

Power Bandwidth versus

In the following figures, the maximum frequency periodic signal is plotted against the peak-to-peak voltage.

Maximum Frequency versus Load Capacitance

Maximum Frequency versus Load Capacitance

### Small Signal Bandwidth

The small-signal bandwidth and frequency response is described in the following table and figure.

Small signal frequency response

 Load Cap. Bandwidth No Load 120 kHz 10 nF 90 kHz 30 nF 40 kHz 100 nF 11 kHz 300 nF 3.8 kHz 1 uF 1.0 kHz 3 uF 320 Hz 10 uF 62 Hz 30 uF 24 Hz

Small signal bandwidth versus

### Overload Protection / Shutdown

Each channel is protected against short-circuit and thermal overload. If the thermal overload on any channel engages, the front panel indicator for that channel will illuminate. In addition, an overload on any channel will cause the overload signal (pin 37) on the input connector to go high (+5V).

The amplifier can also be disabled by applying a logic high (3.3V to 5V) to the disable pin (pin 36).

### Enclosure

The PD32 has a side air intake and rear exhaust. These vents should not be obstructed. If sufficient air-flow is not available, the amplifier will enter a thermal overload state as discussed above.

The PD32 amplifier can be rack-mounted in a single or side-by-side arrangement. A DAC card adaptor can also be rack mounted in a single or side-by-side arrangement with another adaptor or the amplifier itself. A single amplifier or adaptor can be mounted with the PD32-Rack1 kit. Two adaptors, amplifiers, or a combination of both can be mounted side-by-side with the PD32-Rack2 kit.

### Input Test Connector and Cable

An adaptor PCB is supplied which connects all input channels to a single BNC connector. A 2.5ft DB37 (Male-Male) input cable is also supplied.

### Breakout Board and Cable (PD32-Breakout)

A screw-terminal breakout board is included which connects to the amplifier via a Female DD78 connector (TE 5748483-5) and HD78 Male-Male cable (2.5 ft). If required, the board can be mounted onto a base structure using the installed M3 hex spacers.

Output breakout board

The signal adaptors allow a direct connection to common multi-channel DAC cards. Standard adaptors are listed below; however, custom adaptors can also be created.

 Manufacturer DAC Card Signal Adaptor Notes National Instruments PCI-6723 PD-6723 Requires NI SH68-C68-S Cable National Instruments PXI-6723 PD-6723 Requires NI SH68-C68-S Cable